Isle of Man Superyacht Ownership Structures

The Isle of Man is a self-governing Crown Dependency that has become a leading non-EU jurisdiction for luxury asset holding vehicles, particularly for superyacht ownership structures.

In the below video we highlight the key features that make the Isle of Man an ideal location for superyacht ownership entities:

How Dixcart Can Assist with your Isle of Man Superyacht Planning

Since 1989, Dixcart has supported clients and their advisers with the establishment and management of Isle of Man holding structures. They have developed strong ties with industry leaders, including yacht builders, shipping registrars, yacht managers, maritime lawyers, and tax professionals. Dixcart can draw on this expertise to ensure client structuring is effective and run efficiently.

Dixcart Isle of Man excels in all aspects of superyacht planning, including the use of Temporary Admission, making their team exceptionally well-placed to support your structuring needs.

Get in touch

If you or your client are considering the establishment of an offshore luxury asset holding strucutre, please feel free to get in touch with David Walsh:

Alternatively, you can connect with David on Linkedin.

Dixcart Management (IOM) Limited is Licensed by the Isle of Man Financial Services Authority

Yacht Registration

A Guide to the Advantages of Yacht Registration in: Cyprus, Guernsey, Isle of Man, Madeira (Portugal), and Malta


For high-net-worth individuals and families, yachts represent not just a mode of transport but also a symbol of luxury and leisure. Owning a yacht in the optimum manner involves various important considerations, including the jurisdiction of registration, which can have a significant impact regarding; tax implications, regulatory compliance, and operational flexibility.

Dixcart Air Marine specialises in assisting clients with yacht registration across different jurisdictions, offering expertise and guidance throughout the process.

Registration of Yachts

The registration of a yacht involves choosing the right jurisdiction, considering factors such as tax regulation, legal framework, and administrative procedures.

Dixcart Air Marine provides comprehensive services, including; coordination of the registration process, advice on tax efficiencies, and ongoing administration and management.

In addition, we can assist with; special purpose vehicles, accounting, customs arrangements, and value-added services such as directorships. Our expertise extends to import and export formalities, asset registration, and advice on VAT and corporate tax.
We handle ongoing registration requirements and closely monitor costs, budgets, and cash flow. We can also assist with crewing, including contracts and payroll.

Choosing the Right Jurisdiction

Selecting the appropriate jurisdiction for yacht registration is crucial. Each jurisdiction offers unique advantages, catering to different needs and preferences. Cyprus, Guernsey, Isle of Man, Madeira (Portugal), and Malta are among the sought-after jurisdictions for yacht owners due to their; favourable tax regimes, regulatory framework, and maritime expertise.

Yacht Registration in Cyprus

Cyprus emerges as an attractive jurisdiction for yacht registration, offering competitive registration fees, low annual costs, and favourable tax provisions. The Cyprus shipping registry has witnessed significant growth and maintains high-quality standards.

Recognised on the Paris and Tokyo MOUs’ whitelists, Cyprus attracts foreign ship owners with its excellent tax benefits and quality fleet. Notable advantages include compliant VAT procedures, and a robust tonnage tax system. Additionally, Cyprus offers tax exemptions on dividend income and profits from foreign establishments, ideal for ship management companies seeking efficiency and reliability.

In May 2010, Cyprus introduced a tonnage tax system in line with EU guidelines. This system calculates the tonnage tax (TT) based on the net tonnage of eligible ships involved in qualifying shipping activities and uses a defined set of band rates as detailed in the appropriate legislation. Instead of taxing profits directly, this system assesses ships based on their size, offering flexibility for companies with diverse business operations under the same group.

Shipping activities are taxed according to ship size, while other operations face a fixed tax rate of 12.5%. Additionally, Cyprus provides various tax advantages to ship management companies, such as exemption from dividend income (under specific conditions), tax-free profits from foreign permanent establishments, and no withholding tax on income repatriation (including dividends, interest, and nearly all royalties).

If you would like further information regarding Yacht Registration in Cyprus, please contact:

Yacht Registration in Guernsey

As a member of the Red Ensign Group, Guernsey provides a reputable yacht registry, ensuring stability, tax efficiency, and regulatory compliance. Yachts registered in Guernsey benefit from competitive fees and reliable administration. Utilising a Guernsey corporate structure offers asset protection and other advantages, including access to an exclusive flag and VAT registration. Additionally, Guernsey’s international registration validity, flexible presence requirements, and VAT-free options appeal to yacht owners.

Guernsey provides competitive registration fees without tonnage tax or additional annual ship registry fees. Registrations are internationally recognised, with all documentation available in English and widely accepted.

Importantly, Guernsey-registered yachts are not obligated to visit Guernsey physically. In addition, as Guernsey lies outside the EU VAT territory, it offers advantages to non-EU resident owners who wish to operate their vessels VAT-free in Europe, under Temporary Admission (Temporary Importation) relief, provided they meet eligibility criteria.

If you would like further information regarding Yacht Registration in Guernsey, please contact:

Yacht Registration in Isle of Man

The Isle of Man offers advantageous VAT arrangements for commercial charter services, allowing for VAT reclamation on purchases or importations. Yachts owned by Isle of Man-registered companies enjoy zero-rated tax on charter income, along with streamlined customs procedures and tax benefits.

Even if a yacht is not registered on the island, it can still benefit from the Isle of Man’s VAT arrangements, if owned by a company registered for VAT in the Isle of Man, as long as it is used for commercial charter services. In addition, Isle of Man structures enable VAT accounting and reclamation on yacht purchases, facilitating efficient transactions.

Charter income can be subject to a zero-tax rate in the IOM. If a yacht can accommodate ten or more passengers, including crew, it may qualify as ‘passenger transport’ for VAT purposes. In the Isle of Man or the UK, supplies of ‘passenger transport’ are VAT-exempt, while in EU member states, chartering services may be subject to local VAT regulations depending on where the charter occurs.

If you would like further information regarding Yacht Registration in the Isle of Man, please contact:

Yacht Registration in Madeira (Portugal)

Madeira, as part of Portugal, offers a credible and competitive option for yacht registration through its International Shipping Register. Yachts registered in Madeira benefit from EU compliance, VAT advantages, and tax incentives, making it an attractive choice for yacht owning companies.

Madeira’s International Shipping Register (MAR) maintains EU standards and is not recognised as a flag as a convenience by organizations like the International Transport Workers’ Federation (ITF). Additionally, MAR allows full access to EU waters without restrictions for commercial or private yachts. For commercial yachts, MAR offers VAT exemptions on various expenses.

Importing a second-hand yacht into the EU, particularly under Portuguese VAT rules, offers several advantages. Firstly, VAT can be applied to a lower acquisition price based on devaluation, potentially resulting in a significant VAT reduction. For commercial yachts registered on MAR and engaged in charter activities, there are VAT exemptions on the acquisition price, repairs, fuel, provisioning goods, and equipment supply, provided there is regular commercial operation and appropriate charter agreements are in place.

In addition, operational benefits include no citizenship requirements for crew, and exemption from personal income taxes, and flexible social security arrangements for crew members.

Yacht owning companies in Madeira enjoy a favourable tax regime, which includes reduced corporate income tax rates and withholding tax exemptions. Madeira companies benefit from automatic VAT registration, exemptions from initial yacht registration fees, and reduced annual fees. Furthermore, investment routing can eliminate withholding taxes on dividends.

If you would like further information regarding Yacht Registration in Madeira, please contact:

Yacht Registration in Malta

Over the past decade, Malta has consolidated its status as an international Mediterranean centre of maritime excellence, with the largest shipping register in Europe and the sixth largest in the world. Additionally, Malta offers favourable conditions to yachts used for both private and commercial charter and is a world leader in commercial yacht registration. Its business-friendly environment, strategic Mediterranean location, and adherence to international maritime standards contribute to its prominence.

Maltese registered commercial yachts face no trading restrictions, and there is a fast crew-acknowledgement certification process, with a maximum three-month acknowledgement period.

When a yacht is to be used for commercial chartering, a VAT deferment can be obtained, when a yacht, to be used for a commercial operation, is imported into Malta. The yacht owner is also able to recover VAT incurred on goods and services used for the chartering operation.

Similarly when a yacht is to be used for long term leasing, a VAT deferment can be obtained, with the end user, the lessee, paying VAT on the monthly lease payments over the term of the lease. Furthermore, any usage of the yacht outside EU waters is not subject to VAT.

Sales of yachts by Maltese-licensed shipping organisations incur no Malta tax, and non-Maltese residents selling shares in a yacht-owning company are exempt from capital gains tax under Malta Tax Law.

If you would like further information regarding Yacht Registration in Malta, please contact:

Conclusion and Contact Details

Selecting the right jurisdiction for yacht registration is paramount for maximizing benefits and ensuring regulatory compliance. With its expertise and global presence, Dixcart Air Marine assists clients in navigating the complexities of yacht ownership, offering tailored solutions to meet their specific needs and preferences. Whether interested in registering a yacht in; Cyprus, Guernsey, Isle of Man, Malta, or Portugal, yacht owners can rely on Dixcart’s practical experience to facilitate a smooth registration process and unlock the advantages of each jurisdiction.

If you would like further information regarding Yacht Registration, and aren’t sure what jurisdiction, please contact for further assistance.

Aircraft Registration

A Guide to the Advantages of Aircraft Registration in: Cyprus, Guernsey, Isle of Man, Madeira (Portugal), and Malta


Dixcart Air Marine specialises in assisting clients with the registration, and ongoing management of various assets, including aircraft, ships, and yachts.

With a global network of experienced professionals, Dixcart provides tailored services to meet the unique needs of professionals and their clients.

Aircraft registration is a complex topic, and this guide aims to explore the advantages of aircraft registration in the following jurisdictions: Cyprus, Guernsey, Isle of Man, Madeira (Portugal), and Malta. For additional information, please contact us to be put in touch with an expert:

Aircraft Registration Services Provided by Dixcart Air Marine

From assistance with importation to registration and corporate structuring, we provide expert assistance every step of the way.

With extensive experience in providing support for the importation of aircraft into the EU, Dixcart handle all preparation work and customs clearance procedures, ensuring a streamlined process.

When it comes to registration, we understand the importance of choosing the right jurisdiction based on the aircraft’s usage and location.

Dixcart can establish the appropriate ownership structure, guiding clients through the intricacies of registration with precision and efficiency. Additionally, our corporate structuring services cover accounting, secretarial tasks, VAT, and tax advice, providing professional advisers and clients with a commercial approach to managing aircraft assets.

Choosing the Right Jurisdiction

Dixcart offers expert advice in selecting the most tax-efficient ownership structure and jurisdiction for aircraft registration. With extensive experience and offices in key jurisdictions; including Cyprus, Guernsey, Isle of Man, Malta, and Portugal.

Dixcart ensures efficient coordination of the registration process. Our knowledgeable team provides insights into the regulatory frameworks, tax incentives, and operational considerations, enabling clients to make informed decisions, aligned with their objectives.

Advantages of Aircraft Registration in Cyprus

Cyprus offers a favourable regulatory environment and tax incentives for aircraft registration. With competitive fees and an efficient registration process, Cyprus is an attractive choice for aircraft owners seeking reliability and cost-effectiveness.

Additionally, Cyprus’ strategic location provides easy access to European and international markets, enhancing the aircraft’s operational flexibility.

The Private Aircraft Leasing Guidelines provide that Cyprus VAT will only be applied on a percentage of the lease consideration. The applicable percentages have been determined by the Tax Department and depend on the, length, type of aircraft, and an indication of the presumed time of use of the aircraft in EU air space. There is therefore, no need to maintain a detailed record or log books of the movements of the aircraft, for VAT purposes.

To benefit from the Cyprus Private Aircraft Leasing Guidelines, the private aircraft can be registered under any Aircraft register in the world and not necessarily under the Cyprus Aircraft Register. Certain conditions must be met, and the prior approval of the Cypriot Tax Commissioner needs to be obtained in each case.

If you would like further information regarding Aircraft Registration in Cyprus, please contact

Advantages of Aircraft Registration in Guernsey

Guernsey’s reputable regulatory framework and tax-efficient environment make it an ideal jurisdiction for aircraft registration. As a member of the Red Ensign Group, Guernsey adheres to high standards of safety and professionalism in aviation. With streamlined administrative procedures and access to a wide range of aviation-related services, Guernsey offers stability and efficiency for aircraft owners.

Guernsey’s Channel Islands Aircraft Registry, ‘2-REG,’ offers simplified registration with a neutral ‘2-‘ nationality mark.  Registration is available out of sequence; the 2- followed by a four-letter combination, allows for significant personalisation and branding opportunities.

2-REG accepts transfers from various registers, improving flexibility and with a secure mortgage registration system and global inspector network, it offers convenience and security.  

If you would like further information regarding Aircraft Registration in Guernsey, please contact

Advantages of Aircraft Registration in Isle of Man

The Isle of Man offers advantageous VAT arrangements and tax benefits for aircraft owners. With a robust regulatory framework and simplified customs procedures, the Isle of Man provides flexibility and efficiency for aircraft registration. In addition, the Isle of Man’s status as a crown dependency of the United Kingdom, ensures adherence to international standards and conventions, instilling confidence in aircraft owners and operators.

With over 1,000 registered aircraft, the Isle of Man Registry ranks as Europe’s second-largest private business jet register and sixth largest globally. It offers a neutral “M” registration prefix and upholds high regulatory standards.

Operating on a commercial yet cost-effective basis, the Isle of Man boasts; zero corporation tax, no insurance premium tax and VAT alignment with the UK. In addition, no capital gains taxes, no capital transfer tax, and no general withholding taxes are payable in the Isle of Man. A final benefit is that no insurance premium tax is payable.

If you would like further information regarding Aircraft Registration in the Isle of Man, please contact

Advantages of Aircraft Registration in Madeira (Portugal)

Madeira, as part of Portugal, provides a credible option for aircraft registration with EU compliance and tax advantages. Madeira presents a compelling option for aircraft registration, leveraging the advantages of INAC’s (the regulatory authority for civil aviation in Portugal), streamlined processes and low registration charges.

Portugal’s registry requires no nationality stipulations for owners, with a rapid 10-day registration turnaround. In addition, Portugal has pioneered fractional aircraft ownership registration and INAC officers are experienced in this field.

INAC is a secure mortgage register – due to its international reputation and safety standards it is on the banks and financial institutions whitelist of aircraft registries.

Air operators that meet certain conditions and with a valid AOC granted by INAC, are entitled to deduct the VAT on the, fuel supply, maintenance, lease, transfer, and repairs to the aircraft. They are also entitled to deduct VAT on the; acquisition, maintenance, repair, and transfer of equipment incorporated into the aircraft or used in its exploitation. This is provided that 50% of the aircraft’s flights are international.

If you would like further information regarding Aircraft Registration in Portugal, please contact

Advantages of Aircraft Registration in Malta

Malta boasts a reputable aviation registry and extensive tax incentives for aircraft owners. With adherence to international conventions– most notably the Cape Town Convention and Protocol, Malta offers reliability and regulatory compliance for aircraft registration. Additionally, Malta’s comprehensive legal framework and experienced professionals facilitate smooth transactions for aircraft owners, minimising administrative burdens and maximising operational efficiency.

Malta’s location makes it logistically easy to provide access to European and African markets. Malta’s weather conditions also make it the prefect jurisdiction to test aircrafts and train pilots. It offers a wide spectrum of services in this sector such as; aircraft repair and overhaul, management, leasing, maintenance, and training, amongst others.

Aviation professionals can benefit from specifically designed expat tax status, and the taxation of aircraft structures in Malta offers advantageous frameworks, both for commercial and for private registrations.

The Double Tier Tax Structure allows tax free holding of funds and reinvestment of retained earnings through a Malta Holding Company and no withholding tax applies on the distribution of dividends.

In addition, Malta allows for registration of an aircraft under construction, if it is uniquely identifiable.

If you would like further information regarding Aircraft Registration in Malta, please contact

Conclusion and Dixcart Contact Details

Dixcart Air Marine offers comprehensive services to assist aircraft owners in selecting the optimal jurisdiction for registration dependant on their circumstances. Whether in Cyprus, Guernsey, Isle of Man, Malta, or Madeira (Portugal), Dixcart ensures efficient coordination of the registration process, and optimises the benefits available in the circumstances.

With expert guidance and practical solutions, Dixcart helps aircraft owners achieve their objectives efficiently and effectively in an ever-evolving global aviation landscape.

If you would like further information regarding Aircraft Registration, and aren’t sure on a specific jurisdiction, please contact for further assistance.

The Isle of Man: An Ideal Home for Superyacht Holding Structures

The Isle of Man is a leading jurisdiction for luxury asset holding vehicles and post the UK’s departure from the Single Market, it is particularly well suited to enable client’s planning for privately operated superyachts.

This short article highlights some of the most important features of the Isle of Man and the reasons why it is an ideal home for superyacht holding structures.

A Modern & Reliable Legal System

The Isle of Man is a self-governing Crown Dependency with an independent legal system developed on the principles of English Common Law. This provides a familiar and reliable legal framework for many international clients. This can also give third parties like yacht builders, financial institutions, suppliers etc. comfort.

The Isle of Man’s corporate laws also offer flexibility in the choice of holding structures and how they are managed. For instance, the island possesses two Companies Acts, each with distinct features, and a wide variety of corporate vehicles, from Companies to Limited Partnerships with separate legal personality to Foundations.

For instance, the dynamic Companies Act 2006 provides for a procedurally streamlined corporate entity, suitable for holding a wide range of assets, including superyachts.

A Favourable Tax Regime

The Isle of Man famously offers a favourable tax regime which can be very beneficial for asset holding structures, offering headline rates such as:

  • 0% Capital Gains Tax
  • 0% Inheritance Tax
  • 0% Corporate Tax Rate
  • No Stamp Duty

Importantly, the Isle of Man is in a Customs Union with the UK, and therefore the Isle of Man falls under the UK for VAT purposes.

Since the UK departed from the EU, private use Superyachts held by an Isle of Man entity can now benefit from Temporary Admission (TA) to the EU, provided they meet the wider TA criteria. You can read more about Temporary Admission here.

A Globally Recognised Regulatory Environment

The Isle of Man is held in the highest regard by all major developed economies and is committed to maintaining the highest standards of global compliance. The island’s leadership has been recognised by the OECD and the G20 by placing the Isle of Man on its ‘Whitelist’ of co-operative countries.

The Isle of Man Financial Services Authority (FSA) supports the Island’s strong economy and ensures its global standing. Through modern and effective regulation and enforcement, the Isle of Man FSA maintain confidence in the island’s flourishing financial services sector.

The Isle of Man FSA issue licenses and regulate Isle of Man Trust & Corporate Service Providers, giving clients and third parties peace of mind.

The strong regulatory environment has allowed the island to maintain robust relationships with the banks and financial institutions across the world. Further, the Isle of Man Companies Registry maintains a publicly available copy of the Company’s Charges Register. This can provide the lenders with further comfort.

For all of these reasons, superyacht holding structures can benefit from their association with a well-run financial centre like the Isle of Man.

A Heritage in Trust & Corporate Services for Superyachts

The Isle of Man has a long history of delivering Private Client planning solutions through leading Trust & Corporate Services Providers, such as Dixcart.

Since 1989, Dixcart has assisted clients and their advisers with their Isle of Man superyacht holding structures and more. During this time we have developed strong working relationships with some of the yachting industry’s leading experts, including Yacht Builders, Shipping Registers, Yacht Managers, Maritime Lawyers and Tax professionals etc.

Get in Touch

Whether you are preparing to acquire a vessel, or you are seeking to rehome your superyacht holding structure, please feel free to get in touch with David Walsh at Dixcart:

Alternatively, you can connect with David on Linkedin.

Dixcart Management (IOM) Limited is Licensed by the Isle of Man Financial Services Authority

Superyacht Planning: Working Case Studies (2 of 2)

Our short series on planning for a superyacht aims to provide a foundation of understanding for those considering building or purchasing a vessel. In this, the second article in the series, we will take a closer look at how the various elements come together in the operation of a superyacht, through two simple case studies.

If you have not read article one and would like to, please follow the link below:

In this article we will take a look at two case studies:

Case Study 1: MY-20

MY-20 is a new build 20m yacht, that has been purchased by a UK resident ultimate beneficial owner (UBO). The purpose of MY-20 is to cruise domestically within the Mediterranean waters, with no intention of sailing internationally. The UBO does not intend to engage a yacht management professional as it will be primarily utilised as a dayboat, and crew will be engaged on a day rate basis.


Whilst MY-20 will be used as a private vessel, there are still many potential liabilities that need to be abated. An owning entity is always recommended to mitigate any unwarranted personal liabilities that the UBO may be exposed to through operating MY-20. For example ringfencing any exposure to personal claims e.g. tortious, contractual etc.

Further, to prevent the UBO being deemed an employee or de facto Director of the entity, it is best to utilise a transparent vehicle, such as a Limited Partnership. The Isle of Man Partnership can apply for separate legal personality, and therefore limited liability at outset.

For this arrangement our UBO will be the Limited Partner, whose liability is limited to their contributions to the Partnership. The General Partner has unlimited liability and therefore will be a Special Purpose Vehicle (SPV). Here, the SPV is an Isle of Man Private Limited Company (IOM Co Ltd) which of course also benefits from separate legal personality and therefore limited liability.

As General Partner, IOM Co Ltd will provide management and control of MY-20 and its operations. In doing so, IOM Co Ltd will administer the vessel, including holding board meetings, making decisions, making annual filings, accounts including the settlement of invoices, review and agree any applicable contractual agreements, and of course work closely with the Captain. It is imperative that the UBO is not seen to engage in any of this activity, lest they be deemed a General Partner and defeat the planning.


The UBO’s choice of flag will define the laws and regulatory standards that MY-20 will sail under. It will also have implications for the ease of administration. Therefore, the choice of registry is an important one.

As MY-20 is due to only sail within EU waters, an EU flag state will make most sense. From the available registries, the Malta Ship Registry is the largest in Europe and one of the biggest ship registers in the world. The Merchant Shipping Directorate defines MY-20 as a private registered yacht, because it is a pleasure yacht used for the sole purpose of the owner, is 6m+ in length, is not engaged in trade and does not carry passengers for consideration.

The Malta flag is beneficial in our case because:

The registration process is relatively straightforward as the Malta registry is a modern and administratively efficient shipping register.

Registration will only be granted once the Malta Maritime Administration is satisfied that the vessel conforms to all of the manning, safety and pollution prevention standards required by the applicable international conventions. During the registration process relevant evidential documentation is also required. The documentation must include evidence of ownership from a former registry unless the vessel is new.

You can read more about why Malta is a great location for flagging a vessel, here.

Import / Export

Whilst the UBO and owning entity are non-EU resident and MY-20 is a private vessel, Temporary Admission will not be an option as the ensign will be Maltase and the yacht will not be travelling outside of EU waters. Therefore, the UBO must pay VAT on the initial importation of the vessel to an EU Member State, and must carry evidence of this thereafter.

Whilst Luxembourg offers the lowest rate of VAT in the EU @ 17%, it is also landlocked, making it logistically unrealistic to import a yacht there. This means that Malta’s rate of VAT @ 18% is the lowest in the EU for the importation of yachts.

As MY-20 is a 20m yacht, special dispensation must be obtained from the Malta authorities for a one-off voyage to cross the Med and sail to Malta for importation. Malta Customs authority require a valuation of the yacht to approve MY-20’s importation.

Upon approval of the valuation and arrival in Malta, Customs authorities will inspect MY-20 and request the payment of VAT @ 18% based on the value of MY-20. After receipt of payment, Malta authorities will issue a VAT paid certificate, at their discretion.

In order to enact this a Malta VAT agent is required. IOM Co Ltd will engage with Dixcart Malta, who will act as VAT agent to ensure that the yacht is imported properly.

Case Study 1: In Summary

The UBO’s solution calls for an Isle of Man Limited Partnership with separate legal personality, which has an SPV acting as General Partner. MY-20 will be registered in Malta and VAT paid on importation. MY-20 will cruise the Med, and on the proviso that it does not leave EU waters for a period long enough to jeopardise its VAT paid status, then the yacht can continue to be in free circulation in EU waters.

Case Study 2: MY-50

For sake of ease, we will use the same UBO, except the vessel is a 50m superyacht. The UBO has purchased the superyacht with the intention of both private and charter usage, to assist with ongoing upkeep. The superyacht may be used to cruise in the EU and further afield.

Due to the intended arrangement, MY-50 will require a suite of professionals, including a yacht manager, yacht broker, tax adviser, a corporate service provider such as Dixcart and possibly a crewing specialist, if the yacht manager does not provide such services.

For our purposes, we will refer to the superyacht as MY-50.


Due to the UBO being a UK resident, the same structuring can be used to ensure the individual is not deemed an employee or shadow Director of the owning entity – a Limited Partnership with an SPV acting as General Partner (IOM Co Ltd).

IOM Co Ltd will administer MY-50 in a similar way to MY-20, managing all board meetings, decisions, annual filings, contracts. This will include the management accounting associated with not only the ongoing maintenance and payment of invoices etc. but also the operation of any charter agreements.

IOM Co Ltd will work closely with the UBO, Captain, yacht manager, yacht broker and tax adviser to ensure that the structuring remains effective and the superyacht is managed efficiently.


In order to utilise the Temporary Admission VAT procedure when the superyacht is being used by the UBO, a non-EU flag will be required. Temporary Admission allows the vessel to cruise in EU waters for a period of time without VAT being due on import/export. You can read more about Temporary Admission here.

Further, as MY-50 will also be used for commercial charter, the UBO can elect to use the Yachts Engaged in Trade Scheme by registering the vessel in either the Cayman Islands or Marshall Islands. Both options qualify for both Temporary Admission and allow commercial chartering to take place, subject to conditions, and are highly regarded registries.

Yachts Engaged in Trade (YET) Scheme

For those with yachts flagged in the Cayman Islands and Marshall Islands the YET Scheme presents a hybrid approach, whereby the yacht can be used for both private and commercial charters, albeit subject to stringent conditions.

For example, the YET Scheme allows private yachts which are ensigned with the Cayman Island flag to sail under commercial charter in the territories of France and Monaco with VAT exemption. The use of the YET Scheme allows the skipper to switch between YET and Temporary Admission, pausing the 18-month Temporary Admission period, when using the boat for commercial purposes.

Whilst the YET Scheme provides clear benefits to the UBO, there are stringent conditions for use, e.g. the area for commercial charter is restricted whilst in EU waters, the period of commercial charter is restricted to a maximum of 84 days, the yacht must be 24m+ in length and requires a compliance verification survey, a French VAT agent is required etc.

If complied with, the YET Scheme can ensure that no VAT will be payable on the hull importation, and as such will not require disbursement. Correct application of the YET Scheme can provide a cashflow neutral VAT solution. Contravention of any of the requirements may be subject to the application of taxes, penalties or fines by the local authorities.

The YET Scheme is currently limited to the Marshall Islands and Cayman Islands registered vessels.

For our purposes, we will use the Cayman flag.

Case Study 2: In Summary

The ownership of MY-50 will also require an Isle of Man Limited Partnership with separate legal personality, once again meaning that the UBO must have no part in the superyacht’s ongoing management and administration. Further, the flag chosen is non-EU and the vessel is equipped to sail in international waters, therefore the Temporary Admission procedure is applicable when MY-50 is being used as a private superyacht.

As the chosen flag is the Cayman Islands, the UBO can use the YET procedure to commercially charter MY-50 in French and Monegasque waters, subject to conditions. How does this work?

The yacht broker engaged would market MY-50 for those seeking a luxury charter experience. Once a customer has requested to charter MY-50, they work with the yacht manager to create a standardised MYBA charter agreement, detailing the dates of the charter along with the costs applicable to the customer including VAT amongst other information.

Once the agreement has been signed and delivered to the Cayman Islands register, the superyacht is issued a Temporary Certificate of Registry for Yachts Engaged in Trade by the flag state. The certificate will state the limitation period regarding the commercial charter.

When the UBO is onboard, the superyacht is a private vessel and can have free circulation within the EU under Temporary Admission (i.e. there is no charter agreement, fee or VAT required).

Get in touch

If you require further information regarding yacht structuring and how we can assist, please feel free to get in touch with Paul Harvey at Dixcart.

Dixcart Management (IOM) Limited is licensed by the Isle of Man Financial Services Authority.

Planning for a Superyacht? Here is What you Need to Consider (1 of 2)

When you or your client think about their new Superyacht it might conjure visions of luxurious relaxation, crystal clear blue waters and basking in the sun; conversely, I highly doubt the first thing that comes to mind is the need to meticulously plan for the tax and management implications that go hand in hand with such a prestigious asset.

Here at Dixcart, we wanted to create some helpful and informative articles to serve as easy to digest introductions to some key concepts for superyacht planning:

  1. The key considerations for Superyacht ownership; and,
  2. A closer look at the ownership structure, Flag, VAT and other considerations via working case studies.

In article 1 of 2, we’ll take a brief look at vital elements such as:

What Holding Structures Should I Consider For a Superyacht?

When considering the most effective ownership structure you must take into account not only direct and indirect taxation, but also mitigation of personal liability. 

One way of managing this position is through the establishment of a corporate entity, which acts as a holding structure, owning the vessel on the Beneficial Owner’s behalf.

The tax planning requirements and available structures will help define desirable jurisdictions. The entity will be subject to the local laws and tax regime, therefore modern offshore jurisdictions like the Isle of Man may provide tax neutral and globally compliant solutions.

The Isle of Man offers a wide variety of structures to the Ultimate Beneficial Owner (UBO) and their advisers; such as Private Limited Companies and Limited Partnerships. As noted, the form of structuring is generally determined by the client’s circumstances and objectives, e.g.:

  • The vessel’s intended use i.e. private or commercial
  • The UBO’s tax position

Due to their relative simplicity and flexibility, Limited Partnerships (LP) or Private Limited Companies (Private Co) are commonly elected. Typically, the LP is operated by a Special Purpose Vehicle (SPV) – often a Private Co.

Yacht Ownership and Limited Partnerships

LPs formed on the Isle of Man are governed by the Partnership Act 1909. The LP is an incorporated entity with limited liability and can apply for separate legal personality at outset under the Limited Partnership (Legal Personality) Act 2011.

An LP consists of at least one General Partner and one Limited Partner.  Management is vested in the General Partner, who engages in the activity carried out by the LP i.e. the day-to-day management and any requisite decision making etc. Importantly the General Partner has unlimited liability, and therefore is liable to the full extent of all burdens and obligations incurred. For this reason the General Partner would usually be a Private Co.   

The Limited Partner provides the capital held by the LP – in this instance, the method of financing the yacht (debt or equity). The Limited Partner’s liability is limited to the extent of their contribution to the LP. It is of vital importance that the Limited Partner does not participate in the active management of the LP, lest they be deemed a General Partner – losing their limited liability and potentially defeating the tax planning, leading to unintended tax consequences.

The LP must have an Isle of Man Registered Office at all times.

The General Partner would be a Special Purpose Vehicle (“SPV”) taking the form of a Private Co managed by the service provider – for example, Dixcart would establish an Isle of Man Private Limited Company as General Partner with Isle of Man Directors, and the Limited Partner would be the UBO.

Yacht Ownership and SPVs

It may be useful to define what we mean when we say SPV. A Special Purpose Vehicle (SPV) is a legal entity established to achieve a defined purpose, normally incorporated to ringfence risk – be it legal or fiscal liability. This can be to raise financing, conduct a transaction, manage investment or in our instance, act as General Partner.

The SPV would arrange any matters required for the effective and efficient management of the yacht; including the provision of financing where appropriate. For example, instructing the build, purchase of tenders, working with various third-party experts to crew, manage and undertake maintenance of the Yacht etc.

If the Isle of Man is the most appropriate jurisdiction of incorporation, there are two types of Private Co available – these are Companies Act 1931 and Companies Act 2006 companies.

Companies Act 1931 (CA 1931):

The CA 1931 company is a more traditional entity, requiring Registered Office, two Directors and a Company Secretary.

Companies Act 2006 (CA 2006):

By comparison the CA 2006 company is more administratively streamlined, requiring Registered Office, a single Director (which can be a corporate entity) and a Registered Agent.

Since 2021, CA 2006 companies can re-register under the CA1931 Act, whereas the inverse was always possible since the commencement of the CA 2006 – thus, both types of Private Co are convertible. You can read more about re-registration here.

We tend to see the CA 2006 route elected by most yachting structures, due to the relative simplicity offered. However, the choice of corporate vehicle will be governed by the planning requirements and the objectives of the UBO.

Where Should I Register The Superyacht?

By registering the vessel to one of the many shipping registries available, the owner is choosing whose laws and jurisdiction they will sail under. This choice will also govern the requirements regarding the regulation and inspection of the vessel.

Certain registries offer more developed tax and registration procedures, and the jurisdiction may also offer various legal and tax benefits. For these reasons, the British Red Ensign is often the flag of choice – available through Commonwealth countries, including:

In addition to Cayman and Manx registrations, we tend to also see clients favour the Marshall Islands and Malta. Dixcart has an office in Malta who can fully explain the benefits that this jurisdiction offers and have extensive experience flagging vessels.

All four of these jurisdictions offer administrative benefits, modern legislative environments and are compliant with the Paris Memorandum of Understanding on Port State Control – an international agreement between 27 Maritime Authorities.

The choice of flag should again be determined by the UBO’s objectives and how the boat is intended to be used.

What Are The Implications For The Import/Export of a Superyacht?

Depending on a mix of factors relating to ownership and registration etc. sailing between territorial waters will often require serious consideration. There can be significant Customs Duties due, in mishandled circumstances.

For example, non-EU yachts must be imported into the EU and are subject to full rate VAT on the value of the yacht, unless an exemption or procedure can be applied. This can present significant costs for the owner of a superyacht, now potentially liable for up to 20%+ of the yacht value, at the time of importation.

As noted above, with proper planning, procedures can be applied which can abate or extinguish this liability. To name a few:

VAT Procedures for Private Charter Yachts

Temporary Admission (TA) – Private Yachts

TA is an EU Customs procedure, which allows certain goods (including private Yachts) to be brought into the Customs Territory with total or partial relief from import duties and taxes, subject to conditions. This can provide up to 18 months of exemption from such taxes.

In brief:

  • Those non-EU vessels must be registered outside of the EU (e.g. Cayman Islands, Isle of Man or Marshall Islands etc.);
  • The legal owner must be non-EU (e.g. an Isle of Man LP and Private Co etc.); and
  • The individual operating the vessel must be non-EU (i.e. the UBO is not an EU citizen). 

You can read more about TA here.

VAT Procedures for Commercial Charter Yachts

French Commercial Exemption (FCE)

The FCE procedure allows commercial yachts operating in French territorial waters to benefit from VAT exemption.

In order to benefit from the FCE, the yacht needs to comply with 5 requirements:

  1. Registered as a commercial yacht
  2. Used for commercial purposes
  3. Have a permanent crew onboard
  4. The vessel must be 15m+ in Length
  5. At least 70% of charters must be conducted outside of French Territorial Waters:
    • Qualifying voyages include those cruises outside of French and EU waters, for example: a trip starts from another EU or non-EU territory, or where the yacht cruises in international waters, or starts or ends in France or Monaco via international waters.

Those that meet the qualifying criteria can benefit from VAT exemption on importation (normally calculated on the value of the hull), no VAT on the purchase of supplies and services for the purposes of trading commercially, including no VAT on the purchase of fuel.

As you can see, whilst beneficial, the FCE can be operationally complex, particularly with regard to complying with point 5. A “non exemption” alternative is the French Reverse Charge Scheme (FRCS).

French Reverse Charge Scheme (FRCS)

Article 194 of the EU Directive on the Common System of Value Added Tax was brought into force to reduce the administrative VAT burden of both the EU Member States and non-established persons doing business in EU member states. Due to the discretion afforded with regards to implementation, the French Authorities were able to extend this Directive to offer non-established entities certain VAT benefits via the implementation of the FRCS.

Whilst EU entities must make 4 importations in a 12 month period, to be eligible for the FRCS, non-EU entities (such as incorporated Isle of Man LPs) do not need to meet this criterium. They will however still need to engage a French VAT agent to assist with the local administrative duties and formalities.

No VAT will be payable on the hull importation under the FRCS, and as such will not require disbursement. Albeit, VAT on goods and services will still be payable, but can be reclaimed later. Therefore, correct application of the FRCS can provide a cashflow neutral VAT solution. 

Once the FRC importation has been completed and the yacht has been imported into France, the yacht is granted free-circulation and can operate commercially within any EU territory without restriction.

As you can see, due to the formalities and potential tax liabilities at stake, importation needs to be carefully planned and Dixcart work with specialist partners to ensure proper compliance with formalities.

Malta VAT Deferral

In the case of a commercial chartering activity, Malta provides an additional benefit when it comes to importation.

Under normal circumstances, importing a yacht into Malta would attract Vat at the rate of 18%. This would need to be paid upon importation. At a later date, when the company uses the yacht for  commercial activity, the company would claim the Vat refund back in the Vat return.

The Malta authorities have devised a Vat deferral arrangement which eliminates the need to physically pay out the VAT on importation. The VAT payment is deferred, until the first VAT return of the company, where the VAT element will be declared as paid and claimed back, resulting in a VAT neutral position from a cashflow point-of-view upon importation.

There are no further conditions attached to this arrangement.

As you can see, due to the formalities and potential tax liabilities at stake, importation can be complex and needs to be carefully planned. 

Dixcart has offices in both the Isle of Man and Malta, and we are well placed to assist, ensuring proper compliance with formalities.

Crewing Considerations

It is common for the crew to be employed via a third-party agency. Under such circumstances, the third-party agency will hold a crewing agreement with the owning entity (i.e. the LP). The agency will be responsible for vetting and supplying crew members of every level of seniority and discipline – from Captain to Deckhand. They will work alongside service providers like Dixcart to ensure the best possible experience for the UBO and their guests.

How Dixcart can Support your Superyacht Planning

Over the last 50 years, Dixcart has developed strong working relationships with some of the yachting industry’s leading experts – from tax and legal planning, to building, yacht management and crewing.

When combined with our extensive experience in the effective and efficient operation of corporate entities, registration and administration of yacht structures, we are well placed to assist with superyachts of all sizes and purposes.

Get in Touch

If you require further information regarding yacht structuring and how we can assist, please feel free to get in touch with Paul Harvey at Dixcart.

Alternatively, you can connect with Paul on LinkedIn

Dixcart Management (IOM) Limited is licensed by the Isle of Man Financial Services Authority.

Isle of Man: A First-Choice jurisdiction for Non-EU Superyacht Owners

The Isle of Man has a long history of maritime structuring, and Superyacht planning in particular. In recent times, there has been a growing trend in the use of Isle of Man Corporate vehicles for the ownership of Non-EU clients’ Superyachts.

In this short article we will take a flying look at why the Isle of Man has become a first-choice jurisdiction for Non-EU Superyacht Owners. Although there are specific planning opportunities depending on the owner’s jurisdiction of Tax Residency, we will take a focus on the more general advantage that Temporary Admission offers.

1. About The Isle of Man

The Isle of Man is a self-governing Crown Dependency, possessing its own Government which sets the island’s laws and tax regime. The Isle of Man offers a tax-friendly environment for corporate entities, making it a prime location for establishing Special Purpose Vehicles (SPVs) for luxury asset holding and more. Notably, the island features zero rates for Corporate Tax and Capital Gains Tax.

In almost all facets the Isle of Man is independent from the United Kingdom – almost all. Importantly, as a Crown Dependency, the UK is responsible for the island’s international affairs. Prior to Brexit, the Isle of Man had a special relationship with the European Union that allowed the island to take part in the EU Customs Union and the Single Market enjoyed by Member States.

When the UK left the EU, the island’s special relationship also came to an end, meaning the Isle of Man also lost its unique access to the EU Customs Union and Single Market.

Whilst the end of the special relationship undoubtedly had mixed results, one positive outcome was access to a VAT importation procedure known as Temporary Admission. Temporary Admission applies to the importation of a wide range of goods, including Superyachts for our purposes.

You can read more about why you should consider the Isle of Man for Yachting Post-Brexit here.

2. Temporary Admission Overview

Superyachts originating from outside the EU must be imported into the Customs Union, which can subject them to VAT at the local standard rate. This would result in a VAT liability based on the vessel’s value at the time of importation at the prevailing rate within the country of importation. Therefore, this represents a significant cost for owners of boats in excess of 24m+ in length. However, Temporary Admission (TA) can help mitigate this for private yachts.

The Istanbul Convention on TA is a Customs procedure and allows defined goods, such as means of transportation like Superyachts, to be brought into the Customs Territory with total or partial relief from import duties and taxes, subject to meeting certain conditions. For example, the goods must be imported for ‘Specific Purpose’ and are intended for re-exportation within a specified period (Article CUSTMS.16(1)).

Where TA is applicable, owners established outside of the EU who are operating private Superyachts are exempt from VAT on import, albeit Customs Duty relief varies, dependent on the jurisdiction’s classification of the vessel and its Specific Purpose for being imported.

We have provided a quick reference diagram that covers the headline details and requirements below:

Superyacht Holding Structure for Temporary Admission

Rarely is it a good idea to own a luxury asset directly, especially in the instance of a Superyacht or Aircraft. Utilising a corporate holding entity is not only helpful for mitigating indirect tax implications, but also ringfencing the legal liability of financing and operating the craft.

You can read more about the benefits of utilising an Isle of Man SPV for the ownership and financing of your Superyacht here.

As corporate ownership is the preferred method of ownership in 99% of cases, the domicile of the company will be particularly relevant if cruising in EU waters is desirable. Therefore, the owner will need to incorporate a holding entity in any Non-Eu jurisdiction to utilise Temporary Admission.

Note that the jurisdiction of establishment in this case does not necessarily have to be the same as the chosen flag of the vessel. You can read more about the various popular shipping / yacht registries here.

The Isle of Man presents a neutral tax base and stable legislative environment that is well-regarded globally for its professional services and approach to regulation. Where the Isle of Man is elected for the holding vehicle, typically either an Isle of Man Companies Act 2006 Company and/or an Isle of Man Limited Partnership incorporated with Limited Liability are the vehicles of choice. You can read more about these corporate vehicles and more in this article.

You can find some relevant case studies that cover the use of Isle of Man corporate structuring for Superyacht holding here.

3. Your Trust & Corporate Service Provider

Choosing the right Trust & Corporate Service Provider (TCSP) for your Superyacht holding vehicle is a crucial decision that requires the careful consideration of several key factors. Below you will find a short list of questions to help ensure that you select a provider that aligns with your objectives.

Is the Trust and Corporate Service Provider Well Established?

Dixcart Isle of Man has been providing Corporate Services to the owners of High Net Worth Individuals and Family Offices for over 30 years and are exceptionally well positioned to assist clients seeking to undertake corporate structuring regarding their Superyachts.

Does the Trust and Corporate Service Provider Have Professionally Qualified and Experienced Staff and Will you Have a Dedicated Point of Contact?

Our qualified accountants, trustees, chartered Secretaries, compliance professionals and more will always be on hand to assist. Due to our low levels of staff turnover, you can be confident that the relationships you build with our team will be long lasting. The Directors appointed to your holding structure will be your dedicated points of contact from beginning to end.

Does the Trust and Corporate service provider have a Transparent Fee Structure?

As most admin and compliance carried out by Trust and Corporate Service Providers is delivered on a ‘time-spent’ basis (i.e. at hourly rates), you need to ensure that the fees are transparent and that you will never be billed without understanding what it is you are paying for. At Dixcart, we prioritise transparency and undertake regular reviews to ensure a fair and open relationship with our clients and advisers. We always provide advance notice and secure client approval before taking any fee-related actions, as we believe trust is essential in nurturing sustainable relationships.

Does the Trust & Corporate Service Provider have robust compliance and regulatory standards?

Whilst it may not initially seem like the highest priority, it cannot be understated just how important the internal governance and compliance controls of the Trust and Corporate Service Provider are. This essential work is the backbone of any risk management, providing the front line of defence when it comes to any legal or tax challenges. Additionally, as the Trust & Corporate Service Provider will likely have a number of clients, you will want to ensure that their working practices are robust and in line with best practices. For example, where the TCSP runs into regulatory issues it can lead to clients having to search for a new service provider – which can be a costly and time-consuming job. At Dixcart we identify compliance as a competitive advantage, simply because it means we’re here for the long run. Our clients can rest assured that all activity is undertaken with a view to true sustainability.

Does the Trust & Corporate Service Provider have access to a body of industry professionals?

Dixcart Isle of Man have cultivated robust partnerships with leading experts across various relevant fields in the yachting industry, ranging from tax and legal planning to yacht construction, yacht management and more. This means that no matter what stage you are at, whether a new build or existing structure, we can assist clients in achieving their objectives.

4. More Than Just Superyachts

This last section is just to simply note that, where we can undertake Superyacht structuring for clients and their advisers, there are often other planning opportunities that we can assist with.

For instance, where the client is living in a jurisdiction that is not their country of origin or there is some form of international investment being undertaken, there can be significant benefits to utilising an Isle of Man Trust & Corporate Services Provider, such as Dixcart.

You can read more about all of the ways in which a Trust & Corporate Service Provider can augment your worldwide activities.

Get in Touch

If you require further information regarding the use of Isle of Man corporate structures for the purpose of holding assets such as a Superyacht, please feel free to get in touch with David Walsh at Dixcart:

Alternatively, you can connect with David on Linkedin.

Dixcart Management (IOM) Limited is Licensed by the Isle of Man Financial Services Authority

Why Should You Consider The Isle of Man for Yachting, Post-Brexit?

The Isle of Man for Yachting

2020 was mired with uncertainty, but with an end to Brexit negotiations, vaccines, and the promise of further freedoms around the corner, 2021 will hopefully be a return to calmer waters. You, or your clients, may even have started to consider what happens next with regards to their Yachting activities. Here’s why you should consider the Isle of Man for yachting:

With the dust settling in the wake of the UK’s departure from the EU, resulting in a nearly 1,300 page EU-UK Trade and Cooperation Agreement, there is now more clarity on the Agreement’s impact on Yachting activities and potential tax implications. One such clarification being that, following the UK’s exit from the EU, the Isle of Man is no longer deemed EU resident by association. As such, Yachts owned via an Isle of Man entity may qualify for Temporary Admission into EU waters.

In this article, we will be covering the following topics to provide a quick overview:

  • Temporary Admission (TA) for Private Yachts
  • How to Meet the Requirements of Temporary Admission (TA)
  • What Next? Things to Consider When Planning Your Yacht Fiduciary Services

Temporary Admission (TA) for Private Yachts

Temporary Admission (TA) is a Customs procedure, in line with the Istanbul Convention 1990, which allows certain goods (including means of transport – e.g., private Yachts) to be brought into the Customs Territory with total or partial relief from import duties and taxes, subject to conditions.

For example, the goods must be imported for ‘Specific Purpose’ and are intended for re-exportation within a specified period.

Whilst owners established outside of the Customs area are exempt from VAT under TA, Customs Duty relief varies, dependent on the jurisdiction’s classification of the vessel and its Specific Purpose for being imported.

For quick reference we have provided a table of the headline details/requirements below:

The Vessel is registered outside of the Customs Union. (The flag state of the Yacht is non-EU)  
The vessel is used by an individual established outside of the Customs Union. (The owning entity is established outside the EU)  
The vessel must be operated by an individual established outside of the Customs Union. (Ultimate Beneficial Owner must be resident outside the EU)  
Some further conditions to note: The goods must be imported with the intention of re-exporting them at a later date (Maximum 18 months); No alteration of the goods is intended (allowing for maintenance/upkeep), i.e. no value is to be added; The goods can be clearly identified (e.g., hull identification number etc.); The overall Customs requirements are met; and A guarantee is provided, if required (specific to the Member State).  

How to meet the requirements of Temporary Admission (TA)

Thankfully there is a lot of scope for meeting the requirements for those wishing to set sail in the EU under TA:

  1. Registration of the vessel

For a TA procedure to apply with full VAT and Customs Duty relief, the Yacht must be registered in a jurisdiction outside of the EU (it will use the flag of a Non-Member State).

Following its departure from the EU, the Isle of Man now meets this criteria, alongside traditional favourites such as the Cayman Islands.

  • Establishment of the individual

For our purposes, ‘individual’ refers to both Natural Persons and Corporate Entities. In this way we can have an individual established in a separate jurisdiction to the Ultimate Beneficial Owner (UBO) – often by way of a holding company, that will own the Yacht and which in turn will be subject to the local tax regime.

The jurisdiction of establishment in this case does not necessarily have to be the same as the chosen flag of the vessel.

  • Establishment of the Ultimate Beneficial Owner (UBO) 

For the purposes of TA, so long as the UBO is resident outside of the EU, they will qualify.

What Next? Things to Consider When Planning Your Yacht Fiduciary Services

When selecting a suitable ownership structure for the registration of a Private Yacht, which will benefit from TA within EU waters, we would suggest checking the following broad criteria.

Choosing a Jurisdiction for the Holding Structure

  • Strong economic international standards – a minimum ‘A rating’. (S&P / Moody’s)
    • Robust legal standards.
    • An OECD Whitelisted jurisdiction with a strong reputation for compliance and transparency.
    • Beneficial tax regime taxes.

Choosing a Yacht Fiduciary Service

To assist with the specialist advice, corporate structuring, and administration of the Yacht, we would recommend ensuring that your service provider ticks the following boxes:

  • Geographic location – with relation to the local tax regime and time zone (for accessibility and ease of dealing).
    • A proven track record –how established the provider is in the sector, as well as familiarity with this category of service.
    • Access to experts – with many providers, their scale often prevents direct and regular dealings with senior qualified staff members; you will want access to experts whenever you have a query or action that is required, and not to always have these dealt with by juniors.
    • Your business is valued – in an ideal situation, your business will be a priority to the provider, not just another client on the books. Finding a provider that is adaptable and responsive is key to service excellence.

What are Your Yacht Fiduciary Service Options?

With so many well-established shipping registrars and a wide selection of beneficial jurisdictions for incorporating a holding structure, you would be forgiven for having flashbacks of 2020’s uncertainty. This is where we can help.

At Dixcart, your needs are our priority – we provide a bespoke and personal service for those looking to manage and administer their luxury assets; giving you access to experts as and when you require them.

Because we are based in the Isle of Man, we benefit from our Aa3 rated jurisdiction’s political, economic and environmental stability. The Island is a self-governed Crown Dependency, setting its own laws and rates of taxation.

Whilst we can access any number of shipping registers, our local registrar has an exceptional track record of service excellence; providing an approach that blends modern flexible services and competitive rates without compromising on quality.

The beneficial tax regime, business friendly government and OECD ‘Whitelist’ status ensure that the tax vehicles we offer can help you achieve your goals whilst remaining globally compliant.

An Isle of Man registered Company enjoys the following benefits:

We have been assisting clients and their advisers for over 45 years with the effective structuring and administration of wealth, having experience of utilising multiple shipping registers to ensign vessels in line with their desired purpose. If you would like to discuss how we can assist you in achieving the effective and efficient administration of a vessel we would be delighted to hear from you. Please contact Paul Harvey at the Dixcart Office in the Isle of Man:

Alternatively, you can connect with Paul on LinkedIn or find out more about our Dixcart Air Marine services here.

Dixcart Management (IOM) Limited is licensed by the Isle of Man Financial Services Authority.

This information is provided as guidance as at 01/03/21 and should not be considered advice. The most appropriate vehicle is determined by individual client needs and specific advice should be sought.


Shipping Advantages in Cyprus, Madeira (Portugal) and Malta

Dixcart can provide clients with a number of alternative ship registration solutions. This note provides a brief overview of the regimes in Cyprus, the Isle of Man, Madeira (Portugal) and Malta and the shipping advantages they offer. More detailed information is available on request regarding shipping in each of the jurisdictions considered in this Information Note.

Shipping Advantages by Jurisdiction:


Cyprus is a major ship management centre attracting foreign ship owners through the highly favourable tax provisions available for shipping companies on the island. It is recognised as one of the most accessible registries in the EU.

The Cyprus shipping registry has not only grown in size in the last two decades but has also made a considerable effort to increase the quality of its fleet and related services. As a result the Cyprus flag is now classified on the white list of the Paris and Tokyo MOUs*.

Key shipping advantages relating to the shipping sector in Cyprus include:

  • A competitive tax regime for shipping companies, with an EU approved Tonnage Tax System (TTS) that is based on the net tonnage of the vessel rather than the corporation tax on the actual profit. This allows for mixed activities within a group, shipping activities are subject to TT and other activities are subject to 12.5% corporation tax.
  • Competitive operating costs, ship registration costs and fees.
  • The income of officers and crew on Cypriot registered vessels is not subject to income tax.
  • There are no nationality restrictions for officers or crew.
  • Cyprus also offers a series of tax advantages which are applicable to ship and ship management companies: exemption from tax of dividend income (subject to limited conditions), exemption from tax on profits from foreign permanent establishments, and exemption from withholding tax on the repatriation of income (dividends, interest and nearly all royalties).
  • More than 60 Double Tax Treaties.
  • No estate duty on the inheritance of shares in a Cyprus shipping company and no stamp duty is payable on ship mortgage deeds.

Madeira (Portugal) Shipping Advantages

The International Shipping Register of Madeira (MAR) was established in 1989 as part of the Madeira International Business Centre (“MIBC”) “package” of taxation benefits. Vessels registered with MAR carry the Portuguese flag and are subject to the International Treaties and Conventions entered into by Portugal.

The key shipping advantages of ship registration in MAR are detailed below:

  • The register is of a high standard, has EU credibility, is not regarded as a flag of convenience and is included in the Paris MOU white list.          
  • There are no nationality requirements for ship-owners of vessels registered in MAR. They are not required to have their head office in Madeira. It is sufficient to have local legal representation with adequate powers.      
  • Only 30% of the safe manning must be “European”. This includes nationalities such as Polish, Russian and Ukrainian, as well as citizens of Portuguese-speaking countries. This requirement may also be derogated if duly justified. This allows for flexible manning.
  • Crew wages are exempt from income tax and from social security charges in Portugal.        
  • The existence of a flexible mortgage system allows the mortgagor and the mortgagee, by written agreement, to choose the legal system of a particular country that will govern the terms of the mortgage.   
  • Competitive registration fees, there are no annual tonnage taxes.   
  • Eight International Classification Societies are recognised in Portugal. MAR can delegate some of its functions to these societies. This can be simpler and more convenient for ship owners.          
  • Temporary registration is allowed by law (bareboat charter: “In” and “Out”).        
  • Shipping companies licensed to operate within MAR benefit from a corporate income tax rate of 5% until 2027. They also enjoy automatic VAT registration and have access to the Portuguese double taxation treaty network.

Malta Shipping Advantages

Malta provides a reputable flag and ensures compliance with international and European standards. Registration of vessels under the Maltese flag take place in two stages. A vessel is provisionally registered for a six month period. During this provisional registration period, the owner is required to submit additional documentation and the vessel is then permanently registered under the Maltese flag.

There are a number of attractive tax reasons and shipping advantages to consider ship registration in Malta:

•       The standard corporate tax rules do not apply to shipping activities in Malta, due to a specific exemption. No tax on profits from shipping activities is therefore due. Following recent amendments this exemption has also been extended to ship management companies.          

•       Shipping operations are subject to an annual tax comprising an annual registration fee and a tonnage tax based on the net tonnage of the vessel. The rates of tonnage tax are reduced according to the age of the vessel.

•       There is an exemption from stamp duty in Malta on the registration or sale of a ship, shares relating to a licensed shipping organisation and the registration of a mortgage relating to a ship.

•       Individuals not resident in Malta who are officers or employees of a licensed shipping organisation, and the organisation that they work for, are exempt from social security contributions.     

Dixcart Shipping Services and Additional Information

Dixcart can assist in all aspects of registering a ship in Cyprus, the Isle of Man, Madeira and Malta.  

Services include the incorporation of the owner entity, coordinating the appropriate corporate and tax compliance, and registration of the vessel.

If you would like additional information on this topic, please speak to your usual Dixcart contact or to:

*White List Paris and Tokyo MOUs: Flags securing the highest rating in relation to the Memorandum of Understandings on Port State Control.

Dixcart Management (IOM) Limited is licensed by the Isle of Man Financial Services Authority